Dr Anna Marhold

Assistant Professor and a Senior Researcher at the Tilburg Law and Economics Center (TILEC), Tilburg Law School


Anna Marhold is an Assistant Professor and a Senior Researcher at the Tilburg Law and Economics Center (TILEC), Tilburg Law School (the Netherlands). Her specializations are International and European Energy Law and Regulation, International Economic Law, WTO and International Trade Law. Her Ph.D in Law under the supervision of Professor Petros Mavroidis, which she obtained from the European University Institute (EUI), dealt with international trade law and the challenge of changing energy markets. During her Ph.D studies at the EUI, she spent time as a EU-US Fulbright Schuman Scholar at NYU School of Law and was a Marie Curie Early Stage Research Fellow in the framework of DISSETTLE, Dispute Settlement in Trade: Training in Law and Economics, at the Center for Trade and Economic Integration at the Graduate Institute in Geneva. Anna holds parallel degrees in Law (LL.B, LL.M) and Russian (BA, MA) from the University of Amsterdam. She has working experience with the European External Action Service (EEAS – EU Delegation in Armenia) and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (United Nations Headquarters in New York). Anna is fluent in English, Dutch, Czech and Russian.

Research interests

Anna is particularly interested in EU Energy Law and Policy and its interaction with WTO obligations; EU (renewable) energy policy; unbundling; comparing EU and US energy law and policy; energy and environmental regulation in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) and “megaregional agreements”; the future of the Energy Charter Treaty; the OPEC cartel; law and economics approaches to energy and environmental regulation; the interaction of public interest with trade and competition law objectives; squaring energy security with sustainable development and consumer protection; the energy transition and changing energy markets; access to supplies and natural resources; public goods; regulation of network industries; regulation of transit of energy; the Energy Community Treaty and European external energy relations, particularly with the European Neighborhood.

Selected publications

Articles in Refereed Journals

WTO Law and Economics and Restrictive Practices in Energy Trade: The Case of the OPEC Cartel’ in: (2016) Journal of World Energy Law and Business (Oxford), Special Issue on Antitrust in Energy (forthcoming)

Fragmentation and the Nexus between the WTO and the ECT in Global Energy Governance – A Legal-Institutional Analysis Twenty Years Later’ (2015) 16(3) Journal of World Investment and Trade (BRILL) 389-435

The Russo-Ukrainian Gas Disputes, the Energy Charter Treaty and the Kremlin Proposal – Is There Light at the End of the Gas Pipe?’, in: Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal (OGEL) Special issue on Cross-Border Pipelines, OGEL 3 (2011)

Chapters in Books

Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation: Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy’ in: L Hancher and A De Hauteclocque (eds), State Aid in the Energy Sector, Florence School of Regulation (FSR) (forthcoming 2017)

EU Regulatory Private Law in the Energy Community: The Synergy between the CEER and the ECRB in Facilitating Customer Protection’ in: H Micklitz and M Cremona (eds), Private Law in the External Relations of the EU (Oxford University Press, 2016) 249-272

In Too Deep – Russia, the Energy Charter Treaty and the Nord Stream Gas Pipeline’ (2012) 12 Baltic Yearbook of International Law (BRILL/Martinus Nijhoff: Leiden Boston 2012) 303-315

Book Reviews

Russia’s Energy Policies – National, Interregional and Global Levels (ed Pami Aalto) – Book review’, Oil, Gas & Energy Law Journal (OGEL) 5 (2012)

Policy Publications

Centre on Regulation in Europe (CERRE), The Changing World of the DSO in a Smart Energy System Environment – Key Issues and Policy Recommendations (together with SACM Lavrijssen and A Trias) (Brussels, forthcoming)

International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD), The Nexus between the WTO and the Energy Charter Treaty in Global Energy Governance: Analysis and Policy Implications (Geneva, March 2016)

Online Contributions

Florence School of Regulation, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, Energy Law and Policy Podcast Series, ‘Energy in International Trade Law’, July 2016

eu, ‘Towards a Coherent System of Global Energy Trade and Investment Rules’, April 2016

ESIL Reflections, ‘The World Trade Organization and Energy: Fuel for Debate’, European Society of International Law, September 2013

Teaching in the field of energy law

Anna teaches EU External Relations Law and International Trade Law at Tilburg Law School. At the Graduate Institute in Geneva, Anna was lecturing and supervising a group of students advising a sovereign client on the legal aspects of its energy policy in the framework of the International Trade & Investment Law Clinic (led by Professor Joost Pauwelyn)

See also: Anna’s academic profile, SSRN page and LinkedIn profile